Bio-Resonance Results Glossary Vitals Viruses
Signs and Symptoms
CMV usually causes an asymptomatic infection or produces mild flulike symptoms; afterward, it remains latent throughout life and may reactivate. Most patients with CMV infection exhibit few clinical findings on physical examination. Primary CMV infection may be a cause of fever of unknown origin. Symptoms, when apparent, develop 9-60 days after primary infection.
Pharyngitis may be present.
Examination of the lungs may reveal fine crackles.
The lymph nodes and spleen may be enlarged, so CMV should be included in the differential diagnoses of infections that produce lymphadenopathy.
In immunocompromised individuals, symptomatic disease usually manifests as a mononucleosis syndrome. Symptomatic CMV disease can affect almost every organ of the body, resulting in fever of unknown origin, pneumonia, hepatitis, encephalitis, myelitis, colitis, uveitis, retinitis, and neuropathy. Rarer manifestations of CMV infections in immunocompetent individuals include Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, pericarditis, myocarditis, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia.
In patients with HIV infection, CMV involves the entire GI tract. Retinitis is the most common manifestation of CMV disease in patients who are HIV positive.
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
Herpes Simplex 1(HSV-1)
HSV-1 is the main cause of herpes infections on the mouth and lips, including cold sores and fever blisters. It is transmitted through kissing or sharing drinking glasses and utensils. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, although HSV-2 is the main cause of genital herpes. Exposure to HSV-1 is extremely common, as many as 90% of American adults have been exposed to the virus, and there is no stigma to having a cold sore.
Symptoms may include:
Small, painful, fluid-filled blisters around the lips or edge of the mouth
Tingling or burning around the mouth or nose, often a few days before blisters appear
Swollen lymph nodes in neck
Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV-2)
A herpes virus that causes genital herpes, characterized by sores in the genital area. It is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-2 can also cause infection of the brain (encephalitis) if the immune system is severely defective or compromised. The treatment of infection with herpes simplex 2 is usually by topical or oral anti-viral medication, although intravenous therapy is required to treat infections of the brain (encephalitis).
Symptoms may include:
Tingling sensation in the genitalia, buttocks, and thighs
Small red blisters or open sores on genitals or inner thighs; in women, often occur inside the vagina
May be painful or not
In women, vaginal discharge
Fever, muscle aches
Swollen lymph glands in the groin
Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Many cases have few or no symptoms, especially in the young. The time between infection and symptoms, in those who develop them, is between two and six weeks. When symptoms occur, they typically last eight weeks and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, fever, and abdominal pain. Around 10-15% of people experience a recurrence of symptoms during the six months after the initial infection. Acute liver failure may rarely occur, with this being more common in the elderly. It is usually spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with infected feces. Shellfish which have not been sufficiently cooked are a relatively common source. It may also be spread through close contact with an infectious person. While children often do not have symptoms when infected, they are still able to infect others. After a single infection, a person is immune for the rest of his or her life.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellowish skin, tiredness, dark urine and abdominal pain. Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely does the initial infection result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. In those who get infected around the time of birth 90% develop chronic hepatitis B while less than 10% of those infected after the age of five do. Most of those with chronic disease have no symptoms; however, cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop. These complications result in the death of 15 to 25% of those with chronic disease.
The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people’s blood during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common. In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection. Other risk factors include working in healthcare, blood transfusions, dialysis, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, and living in an institution. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver. During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms. Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs. The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected. Early on chronic infection typically has no symptoms. Over many years however, it often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or esophageal and gastric varices.
HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions. Using blood screening, the risk from a transfusion is less than one per two million. It may also be spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth. It is not spread by superficial contact. There is no vaccine against hepatitis C.
Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped viroid. HDV is considered to be a subviral satellite because it can propagate only in the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection).
Both superinfection and coinfection with HDV results in more severe complications compared to infection with HBV alone. These complications include a greater likelihood of experiencing liver failure in acute infections and a rapid progression to liver cirrhosis, with an increased risk of developing liver cancer in chronic infections. In combination with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D has the highest fatality rate of all the hepatitis infections, at 20%.
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. It is one of five known human hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. HEV is a positive-sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA icosahedral virus, HEV has a fecal-oral transmission route.
Although Hepatitis E often causes an acute and self-limiting infection (the virus usually resolves itself and the individual recovers) with low mortality rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients with substantial mortality rates. Organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppressive medication to prevent rejection are thought to be the main population at risk for chronic hepatitis E. Furthermore, in healthy individuals during the duration of the infection, the disease severely impairs a person’s ability to work, care for family members, and other daily activities. Hepatitis E occasionally develops into an acute, severe liver disease, and is fatal in about 2% of all cases. Clinically, it is comparable to hepatitis A, but in pregnant women the disease is more often severe and is associated with a clinical syndrome called fulminant liver failure. Pregnant women, especially those in the third trimester, suffer an elevated mortality rate from the disease of around 20%.
Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6)
This is the virus that most commonly causes the childhood disease, roseola. It was first discovered in 1986. Studies show that HHV-6 infects approximately 90% of children by age 2 years. It is usually marked by several days of high fever followed by a distinctive rash just as the fever breaks. In less than 1 percent of all adults, the virus can also slyly work its own DNA into the human genome. This makes it possible for mothers and fathers to pass HHV-6 to their children if these insertions are present in their eggs or sperm.
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), A is rare, and acquired in adulthood, and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), B is common, usually acquired in childhood. Both A and B can reactivate at a later date, and are believed to contribute to diseases of the bone marrow and/or central nervous system in some people. HHV-6B has been associated with a variety of viral illnesses, including exanthem subitum, roseola infantum, fatal encephalitis, focal encephalitis, mononucleosis, lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, myelosuppression, and pneumonitis.
Many cases of HHV-6 infections are silent or appear with a fever, but HHV-6 infection in infants is the most common cause of fever-induced seizures usually associated with the primary HHV-6 infection. HHV-6 infection in adults is seen usually in those having a compromised immune system, those who have undergone organ transplants or in those with HIV infection.
New research suggests that HHV-6 may play a role in several chronic neurological conditions including MS (multiple sclerosis), mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, status epilepticus, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Influenza A Virus
causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics.
Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H antigens (H1 to H18) and 11 different known N antigens (N1 to N11). H17 was isolated from fruit bats in 2012. H18N11 was discovered in a Peruvian bat in 2013.
Each virus subtype has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles; some are pathogenic to one species but not others, some are pathogenic to multiple species.
Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. The only species in this genus is called Influenza B virus. Influenza B viruses are only known to infect humans and seals, giving them influenza. This limited host and range is apparently responsible for the lack of Influenzavirus B-caused influenza pandemics in contrast with those caused by the morphologically similar Influenzavirus A as both mutate by both antigenic drift and reassortment.
Currently there are two co-circulating lineages of the Influenza B virus based on the antigenic properties of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. The lineages are termed B/Yamagata/16/88-like and B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed by the CDC is currently designed to protect against both co-circulating lineages and has been shown to have greater effectiveness in prevention of influenza caused by influenza B virus than the previous trivalent vaccine.
Further diminishing the impact of this virus “in man, influenza B viruses evolve slower than A viruses and faster than C viruses”. Influenzavirus B mutates at a rate 2 to 3 times slower than type A. It is currently accepted that influenza B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and significantly impacts adolescents and schoolchildren.
Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza C viruses are known to infect humans and pigs. This virus may be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets or by fomites (non-living material) due to its ability to survive on surfaces for short durations. Influenza viruses have a relatively short incubation period (lapse of time from exposure to pathogen to the appearance of symptoms) of 18-72 hours and infect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. Influenza virus C tends to cause mild upper respiratory infections. Cold-like symptoms are associated with the virus including fever (38-40ᵒC), dry cough, rhinorrhea (nasal discharge), headache, muscle pain, and achiness. The virus may lead to more severe infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
After an individual becomes infected, the immune system develops antibodies against that infectious agent. This is the body’s main source of protection. Most children between five and ten years old have already produced antibodies for influenza virus C. As with all influenza viruses, type C affects individuals of all ages, but is most severe in young children, the elderly and individuals with underlying health problems. Young children have less prior exposure and have not developed the antibodies and the elderly have less effective immune systems. Influenza virus infections have one of the highest preventable mortalities in many countries of the world.
Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses called human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). There are four viruses in this group. Each one causes different symptoms and illnesses. All forms of HPIV cause an infection in either the upper or lower respiratory area of the body.
Symptoms of HPIVs are like those of the common cold. When cases are mild, the viruses are often misdiagnosed. Most healthy people infected with an HPIV recover with no treatment. A person with a weakened immune system is at risk for developing a life-threatening infection.
There are four different types of HPIV. They all cause a respiratory infection, but the type of infection, symptoms, and location of the infection depend on the type of virus you have. The four types of HPIV can infect anyone.
HPIV-1; is the leading cause of croup in children. Croup is a respiratory illness that manifests as swelling near the vocal cords and in other parts of the upper respiratory system. HPIV-1 is responsible for outbreaks of croup in the autumn. In the United States, the outbreaks tend to be more widespread in odd-numbered years.
HPIV-2; causes croup in children, but doctors detect it much less often than HPIV-1. It’s seen mostly in the autumn but to a lesser degree than HPIV-1.
HPIV-3; is mostly associated with pneumonia and bronchiolitis, which is swelling from inflammation in the smallest airways in the lungs. It often causes infections in the spring and early summer, but it appears in people throughout the year.
HPIV-4; is rarer than the other types. Unlike the other strains of HPIV, there are no known seasonal patterns of HPIV-4.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
This common cold virus causing bronchiolitis in children, can act as a ‘hit and hide’ virus. The virus can survive for many months or years, perhaps causing long-term effects on health, such as damage to the lungs. Like a cold virus, RSV attacks your nose eyes, throat, and lungs. It spreads like a cold too, when you cough, sneeze, or share food or drinks.
There are many kinds of RSV, so your body never becomes immune to it. You can get it again and again throughout your life, sometimes during the same season.
RSV usually causes the same symptoms as a bad cold, such as a cough, a stuffy or runny nose, a mild sore throat, an earache, and a fever. Babies with RSV may also have no energy, act fussy or cranky and be less hungry than usual. Some children have more serious symptoms like wheezing.
This is a highly contagious disease, also from the herpes family, characterized by an itchy skin rash and fever. Chickenpox usually begins with mild constitutional symptoms such as a mild headache, moderate fever and discomfort followed by an eruption appearing in itchy groups of flat or elevated spots and blisters, which form crusts. The virus lies dormant in individuals who have had chickenpox as children. Shingles is a painful localized recurrence of the skin rash during adulthood. Shingles occur because the virus is reactivated.