Bio-Resonance Results Glossary Vitals Vitamins and Coenzymes


Vitamins are chemical compounds that are vital to life and indispensable to body functions. They often exist as provitamins, inactive forms that must be converted into active vitamins before they can perform metabolic tasks in the body's cells. There are thirteen individual vitamins required by the human body for growth and maintenance of good health.

B1, Thiamine 

This is an essential nutrient that all tissues of the body need to function properly. Like the other B vitamins, thiamine is water-soluble and helps the body turn food into energy. The body needs thiamine to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is a molecule that transports energy within cells.
A thiamine deficiency can impact many different functions of your body, including those of the nervous system, heart and brain. Conditions that can impair thiamine levels include alcoholism, Crohn’s disease, and anorexia.

People who are undergoing dialysis for their kidneys or taking loop diuretics are also at risk for thiamine deficiency. Loop diuretics are prescribed for people with congestive heart failure. They can flush thiamine out of the body, possibly canceling out any health benefits. The heart relies on thiamine to function properly.

Thiamine deficiency can lead to two major health problems: beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Beriberi affects breathing, eye movements, heart function, and alertness. It’s caused by a buildup of pyruvic acid in the bloodstream, which is a side effect of your body not being able to turn food into fuel. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is technically two different disorders. Wernicke’s disease affects the nervous system and causes visual impairments, a lack of muscle coordination, and mental decline. If Wernicke’s disease is left untreated, it can lead to Korsakoff syndrome. Korsakoff syndrome permanently impairs memory functions in the brain.


B2, Riboflavin

This is a water-soluble vitamin present in most animal and plant tissues. Riboflavin is one of the essential B vitamins, known to help support adrenal function, help calm and maintain a healthy nervous system, and facilitate key metabolic processes, including helping to turn food into energy. Riboflavin is involved in vital metabolic processes in the body, and is necessary for energy production and normal cell function and growth. 

VItamin B2 is also crucial in helping other B vitamins undergo the chemical changes that make them useful. Emerging research shows that riboflavin/vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant, potentially helping to prevent cancer and prohibit cholesterol buildup by controlling the proliferation of harmful molecules known as free radicals.

Dietary sources of riboflavin include: dairy products (such as milk, cheese and yogurt), eggs, enriched or fortified cereals and grains, meats, liver, dark greens (such as asparagus, broccoli, spinach and turnip greens), fish, poultry, and buckwheat. Keep in mind that riboflavin is easily destroyed by exposure to light, so buy milk and yogurt in paper cartons or containers.

Too little riboflavin can cause weakness, throat swelling/soreness, a swollen tongue, skin cracking (including cracked corners of the mouth), dermatitis, and anemia. Riboflavin/vitamin B2 deficiency can also affect vision, including blurred vision and itching, watering, sore, or bloodshot eyes, as well eyes becoming light-sensitive and easily fatigued.



B3, Niacin

This  is one of the eight B-complex water-soluble vitamins. Niacin has a wide range of uses in the body, helping functions in the digestive system, skin and nervous system. Niacin comes in several forms, including niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate. Each of these forms has various uses as well.

Food sources of niacin include yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, nuts, green vegetables, beans and enriched breads and cereals.  The human body can also make niacin from the amino acid tryptophan.niacin helps the body break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins into energy. it plays a role in gland and liver function. Niacin has a role in producing certain hormones in the adrenal glands and helps remove harmful chemicals from the liver. It also can play a part in improving health. 

According to NIH, it is also used for treating migraine headaches, circulation problems and dizziness, and to reduce the diarrhea associated with cholera. It is also used to lower cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. B3 was found to improve the ability to maintain an erection in men with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. More severe niacin deficiency can cause a condition called pellagra. The symptoms of pellagra include digestive problems, inflamed or flakey skin, diarrhea and mental impairment. There is also a correlation between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia.

One side effect of taking niacin supplements is mild flushing. Ross described it as a feeling of warmth, itching, redness or a tingly feeling under the skin. The flushing is harmless and usually subsides within one or two hours.


B3, Nicotinamide (niacinamide)

This is the water-soluble, active form of vitamin B3. The broad clinical effects of nicotinamide may be explained by its role as a cellular energy precursor, a modulator of inflammatory cytokines, an inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose [ADP]) polymerase [PARP], which plays a significant role in DNA repair, maintenance of genomic stability, and cellular response to injury including inflammation and apoptosis (cell death).

B3 may repair damage to the brain caused by strokes. B3 may also be helpful to cancer patients. A recent study found that nicotinamide significantly reduces the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers in those with a history of basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral nicotinamide is generally well tolerated in doses under 3 g/day. It does not cause flushing or gastrointestinal upset, unlike its precursor nicotinic acid. It has been reported to increase sweating and raise blood sugar.


B5, Pantothenic Acid

This is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential coenzyme in a variety of reactions that sustain life. CoA is required for chemical reactions that generate energy from food (fat, carbohydrates, and proteins). The synthesis of essential fats, cholesterol, and steroid hormones requires CoA, as does the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and the hormone, melatonin. Heme, a component of hemoglobin, requires a CoA-containing compound for its synthesis. Metabolism of many drugs and toxins by the liver requires CoA. Coenzyme A was named for its role in acetylation reactions. Both CoA and the acyl-carrier protein are required for the synthesis of fatty acids.

Administration of pantothenic acid orally and application of pantothenol ointment to the skin have been shown to accelerate the closure of skin wounds and increase the strength of scar tissue. A pantothenic acid derivative called pantethine has been reported to have a cholesterol lowering effect.
B5 helps create red blood cells, create stress related and sex hormones, maintain a healthy digestive tract, process other B vitamins (especially riboflavin), and synthesize cholesterol.


B6, Pyridoxine 

This is involved in no less than 100 different chemical reactions in your body per minute.

It functions mostly as a co-enzyme – which is exactly what it sounds like. Vitamin B6 works with other enzymes to regulate all sorts of processes in your body.
Studies have shown the benefits of vitamin B6 in relieving edema and reducing water retention, improving magnesium deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, rheumatism, cardiovascular occlusions and myocardial infarcts, learning and developmental disorders, and autism.
Technically, vitamin B6 is an umbrella term given to three different vitamins, pyridoxine, pridoxal, and pyridoxamine. The three B6 vitamins work together with other enzymes to speed up chemical reactions in cells.

Those processes include making amino acids, creating neurotransmitters like serotonin and metabolizing energy released in creating red blood cells. Vitamin B6 benefits also include helping to balance hormones and strengthen the immune system.

The activated form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal-5-phosphate or P-5-P, is the form of vitamin B6 that the body utilizes best. Because many people can’t convert vitamin B6 to P-5-P, doctors recommend that at least 20% of the daily intake of vitamin B6 be in the form of a supplement containing P-5-P, the activated form of vitamin B6 in order to derive the maximum vitamin B6 benefits.

Vitamin B6 deficiency has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and irritability. Studies have shown a deficiency of vitamin B6 in people diagnosed with epilepsy, acne, arthritis and sebhorheic dermatitis.

Because the body requires vitamin B6 to properly metabolize so many different other enzymes and proteins, a vitamin B6 deficiency can potentially be at the root of many different disorders, including yeast infections, water retention, premenstrual syndrome, an impaired immune system, Parkinson’s disease and arthritis.

Specifically, clinical studies have shown the benefits of vitamin B6 in treating:

  • autism
  • carpal tunnel syndrome
  • asthma
  • endometriosis
  • premenstrual syndrome
  • edema
  • atherosclerosis
  • acne
  • attention deficit disorder
  • schizophrenia
  • clinical depression

In most cases, scientists believe that supplementing the diet with vitamin B6 allows the body to better utilize other supplements and medications, and improves the effectiveness of other treatments for those conditions.

Because your body uses vitamin B6 to help metabolize and use other enzymes and vitamins, it’s important that you match your intake of B6 with equal doses of vitamins B12 and other vitamins in the B complex family. If those guidelines aren’t followed, then long term doses of as little as 500 mg daily can result in the toxicity of vitamin B6. To avoid vitamin B6 overdose, nutrition experts suggest that vitamin B6 be taken with equal doses of other B vitamins and magnesium supplements.



The health benefits of Vitamin B7 or Biotin include improved metabolism, tissue maintenance, healthy skin, weight loss, relief from heart problems, alopecia, Parkinson’s disease, Rett syndrome and vaginal candidiasis. It also aids in the synthesis of vital components and helps in maintaining blood sugar levels.

Biotin, along with the other B-complex vitamins, has the main functions of helping your body to process energy, and of carrying carbon dioxide through your body. Your sweat glands, nerve tissue and bone marrow also function at their peak efficiency when you have proper Biotin levels. 

Biotin may have an important role in the growth and maintenance of your hair and nails. If you suffer from a Biotin deficiency, you will typically experience hair loss and brittle nails, and taking supplements of this vitamin may help to halt this process. In many cases, taking a Biotin supplement may even help you to stimulate new hair and nail growth. Even though hair loss is rarely caused by a Biotin deficiency in your body, this problem can quite often be helped if you take Biotin supplements regularly. 



Vitamin B9: (Folate)

All the B vitamins are water-soluble, meaning the body does not store them. Folic acid is crucial for proper brain function and plays an important role in mental and emotional health. Vitamin B9, also called folate or folic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy needed for a healthy liver, and healthy skin, hair, and eyes. Folic acid (Vitamin B9), also known as folate, functions as a coenzyme during the synthesis of genetic material (DNA). It is also a vital component for cellular division, and the normal growth, development, function, and reproduction of all cells. Folic acid plays a role in all processes that depend on cell division. Folic acid is necessary to help regulate the formation of both red and white blood cells. It also aids in the elimination of homocysteine from the body, a blood toxin which can negatively impact the heart muscle and contribute to the deposit of cholesterol in the heart. Folate helps to promote a healthy pregnancy by acting to regulate the development of the fetus’ central nervous system. Folic acid is vital for all growth phases of human life.


The MTHFR gene instructs the body to make an enzyme necessary to convert Vitamin B9 into a usable form. This enzyme is also important in the process of converting homocysteine into methionine – an amino acid the body needs for growth and metabolism. Methylation, a process involving a methyl group activating an enzyme, is also associated with the MTHFR gene. Proper methylation enables the body to detoxify toxic metals, toxins, and other wastes more efficiently. In the case of an MTHFR mutation, an inability to process folic acid (vitamin B9) can have serious effects. For one, a developing fetus can suffer brain defects like spina bifida or anencephaly if the mother has a severe defect in the gene. Folate deficiency can also result in lethargy, impaired cognitive function, and mood disorders.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

This plays a role in making DNA and also helps keep nerve cells and red blood cells healthy. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. It is responsible for the smooth functioning of several critical body processes. Vitamin B-12 has been looked at as a treatment for many diseases and conditions. These include fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, breast cancer, high cholesterol, and sickle cell disease. The body needs B12 to convert homocysteine to methionine, protect DNA and RNA, support energy, protect nerve and brain cells, stimulate serotonin production, contribute to red blood cell formation, support immune function, and maintain a positive mood.

Many individuals cannot convert cobalamin into the active form called methylcobalamin. Methylcobalamin is the only form of B12 that can cross the blood-brain barrier without assistance or conversion. Its methyl group stimulates serotonin creation, a neurotransmitter responsible for mood support. It also works directly on brain cells to protect against damage from excitotoxins. Researchers have found large doses of methylcobalamin may offer therapeutic value for those suffering from ALS and multiple sclerosis. This is the only form of B12 that acts on the nervous system. A deficiency in B12 can lead to pernicious anemia. The most common cause of pernicious anemia is the loss of stomach cells that make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor helps the body absorb vitamin B12 in the intestine. The loss of parietal cells may be due to destruction by the body’s own immune system.


Beta Carotene

This is an antioxidant which protects cells against oxidation damage that can lead to cancer. Beta carotene is converted, as needed, to vitamin A. Excessive carotene in the diet can temporarily yellow the skin, a condition called carotenemia.


CoEnzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a substance that helps convert food into energy. CoQ10 is found in almost every cell in the body, and is a powerful antioxidant.

Antioxidants fight damaging particles in the body known as free radicals, which damage cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Scientists believe free radicals contribute to the aging process, as well as a number of health problems, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants, such as CoQ10, can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

Some researchers believe that CoQ10 may help with heart-related conditions, because it can improve energy production in cells, prevent blood clot formation, and act as an antioxidant.

Some studies suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplements, either by themselves or in with other drug therapies, may help prevent or treat the following conditions:

  • After Heart Attack
  • Heart Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Heart Damage caused by chemotherapy
  • Heart Surgery
  • Periodontal (Gum) Disease


Preliminary clinical studies also suggest that CoQ10 may:

  • Improve immune function in people with HIV or AIDS
  • Increase sperm motility, improving male fertility
  • Be used as part of the treatment for Parkinson disease
  • Improve exercise ability in people with angina
  • Help prevent migraines 

Scientific studies are needed to see whether CoQ10 can be safely and effectively used for these health problems and needs.

Vitamin A (Retinoid)

This is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. Vitamin A also helps the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work properly. Vitamin A is key for good vision, a healthy immune system, and cell growth. There are two types of vitamin A. This entry is primarily about the active form of vitamin A — retinoids — that comes from animal products. Beta-carotene is among the second type of vitamin A, which comes from plants.However, getting too much preformed vitamin A (usually from supplements or certain medicines) can cause dizziness, nausea, headaches, coma, and even death. High intakes of preformed vitamin A in pregnant women can also cause birth defects in their babies. Women who might be pregnant should not take high doses of vitamin A supplements.


Vitamin C

This is a water-soluble vitamin and powerful antioxidant, it helps the body form and maintain connective tissue, including bones, blood vessels, and skin. Vitamin C is important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework protein for tissues of the body. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragile capillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children.


Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy 

This is a steroid vitamin which promotes absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus which helps maintain healthy bones and teeth, and is suggested to supply a protective effect against multiple diseases and conditions such as cancer, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Under normal conditions of sunlight exposure, no dietary supplementation is necessary because sunlight promotes adequate vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Vitamin D must go through several processes in your body before your body can use it. The first transformation occurs in the liver. Here, your body converts vitamin D to a chemical known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D, also called calcidiol. The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the best way to monitor vitamin D levels. The test can determine if your vitamin D levels are too high or too low. D3 is up to 87% more effective than D2.

It is estimated that up to 85 percent of people have insufficient levels of vitamin D and are unaware of their deficient state. While conventional media and medicine promote sun avoidance, doing so can actually put your health in grave danger and cause vitamin D deficiency.

The Role of Vitamin D in Disease Prevention

A growing body of evidence shows that vitamin D plays a crucial role in disease prevention and maintaining optimal health. There are about 30,000 genes in your body, and vitamin D affects nearly 3,000 of them, as well as vitamin D receptors located throughout your body.

According to one large-scale study, optimal vitamin D levels can slash your risk of cancer by as much as 60 percent. Keeping your levels optimized can help prevent at least 16 different types of cancer, including pancreatic, lung, ovarian, prostate, and skin cancers. Moreover, vitamin D can build your defenses against cancer by:

  • Enhancing the self-destruction of mutated cells (which can replicate and cause cancer)
  • Slowing down the production and spread of cancer cells
  • Helping in the differentiation of cells (cancer cells are not differentiated)
  • Preventing the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones (this can help stop the progress of benign tumors into cancerous ones)

Vitamin D can also help reduce the risk of other conditions as well, including type 2 diabetes, chronic inflammation, age-related macular degeneration (the leading cause of blindness), and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin D also exhibits its infection-fighting abilities in the treatment of tuberculosis, pneumonia, colds, and flu. It can also improve seizure control in epileptics. (


Vitamin E

This is a fat-soluble nutrient found in many foods. In the body, it acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are compounds formed when our bodies convert the food we eat into energy.


Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is most well-known for the important role it plays in blood clotting. However, vitamin K is also absolutely essential to building strong bones, preventing heart disease, and a crucial part of other bodily processes. Deficiency can lead to abnormal bleeding. Vitamin K2 should be used in conjunction with D3 for achieving the most optimal levels of Vitamin D without toxicity.



Coenzymne Q10




Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the most important enzymes in human physiology. this gene provides your body with instructions to make a protein responsible for folate metabolism. This helps to assess your risk for coronary artery disease and stroke and which medication may be best for you. 

Deficiencies in production or function of this enzyme have been associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, venous thrombosis, several types of cancer, congenital defects, inflammatory bowel disease, and several neuropsychiatric conditions. In practice, MTHFR function is an important predictor of predispositions to chronic disease states, and interventions aimed at optimizing MTHFR function can often be preventive or therapeutic. 

Most research on MTHFR mutations point to the C677T homozygous mutation and how it causes elevated levels of homocysteine. This mutation has been linked to neuropsychiatric conditions due to the indirect effects of MTHFR activity on the production of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, as well as the potentially toxic effect of hyperhomocysteinemia. 

Schizophrenia-like syndromes, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia have all been associated with one or more mutations of the MTHFR gene. 


MTHFR (A1298C) 

The MTHFR A1298C mutation affects the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase by inhibiting the utilization of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), or methylfolate, in producing an important chemical called tetrahydrobiopterin, or BH4. BH4 is a cofactor in neurotransmitter production, including serotonin, dopamine, melatonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. It also plays a role in the production of nitric oxide. If you have the MTHFR A1298C mutation, you may be deficient in BH4, which may cause psychological or neurological problems, as well as cardiovascular disease. Methylfolate supplementation can help address the MTHFR A1298C mutation by pushing the production of BH4, thereby preventing or reversing a BH4 deficiency.