Bio-Resonance Results Glossary Vitals Parasites

PARASITES

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. There are three main classes of parasites that can cause disease in humans: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites.

Acanthamoeba

This is a microscopic, free-living ameba, or amoeba (single-celled living organism), that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system. The ameba is found worldwide in the environment in water and soil. The ameba can be spread to the eyes through contact lens use, cuts, or skin wounds or by being inhaled into the lungs. Most people will be exposed to Acanthamoeba during their lifetime, but very few will become sick from this exposure. 

   

 

Amebiasis

Amebiasis is a disease caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It can affect anyone, although it is more common in people who live in tropical areas with poor sanitary conditions. Diagnosis can be difficult because other parasites can look very similar to E. histolytica when seen under a microscope. Infected people do not always become sick. If your doctor determines that you are infected and need treatment, medication is available.
   

Angiostrongyliasis

This is a parasite nematode that can cause severe gastrointestinal or central nervous system disease in humans depending on the species. Angiostrongylis cantonensis, which is also known as the rat lung worm, causes eosinophilic meningitis and is prevalent in Southeast Asia and tropical Pacific islands. The distribution of this parasite has been increasing over time and infections have been identified in Africa, the Caribbean and the United States. Angiostrongylis costaricensis causes eosinophilic gastroenteritis and is found in Latin America and the Caribbean.

   

 

Anisakiasis

This is caused by anisakid nematodes (worms) that can invade the stomach wall or intestine of humans. The transmission of this disease occurs when infective larvae are ingested from fish or squid that humans eat raw or undercooked. In some cases, this infection is treated by removal of the larvae via endoscopy or surgery.

   

Babesiosis

Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and are spread by certain ticks. Babesia microti is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks-typically, by the nymph stage of the tick, which is about the size of a poppy seed. Although many people who are infected with Babesia do not have symptoms, for those who do effective treatment is available. Babesiosis is preventable, if simple steps are taken to reduce exposure to ticks.

   

Balantidiasis

Balantidium coli, though rare in the US, is an intestinal protozoan parasite that can infect humans. These parasites can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route by contaminated food and water.Balantidium coli infection is mostly asymptomatic, but people with other serious illnesses can experience persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes a perforated colon. When traveling to endemic tropical countries, Balantidium coli infection can be prevented by following good hygiene practices. Wash all fruits and vegetables with clean water when preparing or eating them, even if they have a removable skin.

   

Balamuthia

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba (a single-celled living organism) naturally found in the environment. Balamuthia can cause a rare and serious infection of the brain and spinal cord called Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE).

   

Baylisascaris

This is a genus of roundworms. The microscopic larvae hatch in the intestine and invade the intestinal wall. If they are in their definitive host they develop for several weeks, then enter the intestinal lumen, mature, mate, and produce eggs, which are carried out in the fecal stream. If the larvae are in a paratenic host, they break into the bloodstream and enter various organs, particularly the central nervous system. The disease that causes it is Baylisascariasis. A great deal of damage occurs wherever the larva try to make a home. In response to the attack, the body attempts to destroy it by walling it off or killing it. The larva moves rapidly to escape, seeking out the liver, eyes, spinal cord or brain. Occasionally they can be found in the heart, lungs, and other organs. Eventually the larva dies and is reabsorbed by the body. In very small species such as mice, it might take only one or two larvae in the brain to be fatal. If the larva does not cause significant damage in vital organs, then the victim will show no signs of disease. On the other hand, if it causes behavioral changes by destroying parts of the brain, the host becomes easier prey, bringing the larva into the intestine of a new host.

Clinical signs in humans

  • Skin irritations from larvae migrating within the skin.
  • Respiratory discomfort, liver enlargement, and fever due to reaction to larvae migration.
  • Eye and brain tissue damage due to the random migration of the larvae.
  • Nausea, a lethargic feeling, incoordination and loss of eyesight.
  • Severe neurological signs including imbalance, circling and abnormal behavior, caused by extensive tissue damage due to larval migration through the brain, eventually seizures and coma.     Source

 

Bed Bugs

Bed bugs, a problem worldwide, are resurging, causing property loss, expense, and inconvenience. The good news is that bed bugs do not transmit disease. The best way to prevent bed bugs is regular inspection for signs of an infestation.

   

Blastocystis Hominis

This is a common microscopic organism that inhabits the intestine and is found throughout the world. A full understanding of the biology of Blastocystis and its relationship to other organisms is not clear, but is an active area of research.

   

Capillariasis

Capillariasis is a parasitic disease in humans caused by two different species of capillarids: Capillaria hepatica and Capillaria philippinensis.C. hepatica is transferred through the fecal matter of infected animals and can lead to hepatitis. C. philippinensis is transferred through ingesting infected small freshwater fish and can lead to diarrhea and emaciation.

    

Cercarial Dermatitis

Swimmer’s itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an allergic reaction to certain parasites that infect some birds and mammals. These microscopic parasites are released from infected snails into fresh and salt water (such as lakes, ponds, and oceans). While the parasite’s preferred host is the specific bird or mammal, if the parasite comes into contact with a swimmer, it burrows into the skin causing an allergic reaction and rash. Swimmer’s itch is found throughout the world and is more frequent during summer months. Most cases of swimmer’s itch do not require medical attention.

    

Chagas Disease (AmericanTrypanosomiasis)

This is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors and is found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread).

      

Chilomastix Mesnili

This is a non-parasitic member of primate gastrointestinal microflora, commonly associated with but not causing parasitic infections. It is found in about 3.5% of the population in the United States. In addition to humans, Chilomastix is found in chimpanzees, orangutans, monkeys, and pigs. It lives in the cecum and colon. C. mesnili has a similar life style to Giardia lamblia.

Although Chilomastix mesnili is considered non-pathogenic, it often occurs with other parasite infections. C. mesnili may be confused with other pathogenic species during diagnosis. It can create a false positive which would result in unnecessary treatment or a false negative which would withhold necessary treatment.     Source

     

Clonorchiasis

This is a liver fluke that can infect the liver, gallbladder and bile duct in humans. Found across parts of Asia, it is also known as the Chinese or oriental liver fluke. Humans become infected when eating the parasite containing cysts within infected raw or undercooked fish, crabs, or crayfish. Clonorchiscan be treated by medication through your health professional.

 

CLM (Cutaneous Larva Migrans, Ancylostomiasis, Hookworm)

Zoonotic hookworms are hookworms that live in animals but can be transmitted to humans. Dogs and cats can become infected with several hookworm species, including Ancylostoma brazilenseA. caninumA. ceylanicum, and Uncinaria stenocephala. The eggs of these parasites are shed in the feces of infected animals and can end up in the environment, contaminating the ground where the animal defecated. People become infected when the zoonotic hookworm larvae penetrate unprotected skin, especially when walking barefoot or sitting on contaminated soil or sand. This can result in a disease called cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), when the larvae migrate through the skin and cause inflammation.

   

Crabs

Pithariasis Adult pubic lice are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.). Pubic lice infestations (pthiriasis) are usually spread through sexual contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

   

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis. Both the parasite and the disease are commonly known as “Crypto.”

There are many species of Cryptosporidium that infect animals, some of which also infect humans. The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it very tolerant to chlorine disinfection.

While this parasite can be spread in several different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common way to spread the parasite. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of waterborne disease among humans in the United States.

   

Cyclosporiasis

Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by the microscopic parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. People can become infected withCyclospora by consuming food or water contaminated with the parasite. People living or traveling in countries where cyclosporiasis is endemic may be at increased risk for infection.

   

Cysticercosis

Cysticercosis is a parasitic tissue infection caused by larval cysts of the tapeworm Taenia solium. These larval cysts infect brain, muscle, or other tissue, and are a major cause of adult onset seizures in most low-income countries. A person gets cysticercosis by swallowing eggs found in the feces of a person who has an intestinal tapeworm.  People living in the same household with someone who has a tapeworm have a much higher risk of getting cysticercosis than people who don’t. People do not get cysticercosis by eating undercooked pork.  Eating undercooked pork can result in intestinal tapeworm if the pork contains larval cysts.  Pigs become infected by eating tapeworm eggs in the feces of a human infected with a tapeworm. Both the tapeworm infection, also known as taeniasis, and cysticercosis occur globally. The highest rates of infection are found in areas of Latin America, Asia, and Africa that have poor sanitation and free-ranging pigs that have access to human feces.

   

Cystoisospora (formerly known as isosporiasis)

This is an intestinal disease of humans caused by the coccidian parasite Cystoisospora belli (formerly known asIsospora belli). Cystoisosporiasis is most common in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The parasite can be spread by ingesting contaminated food or water. The most common symptom is watery diarrhea. The infection is treatable and preventable.

 

Dientamoeba Fragilis

This is a parasite that lives in the large intestine of people. This protozoan parasite produces trophozoites; cysts have not been identified. The intestinal infection may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic.

 

Diphyllobothriasis

Diphyllobothrium latum and related species (the fish or broad tapeworm), the largest tapeworms that can infect people, can grow up to 30 feet long. While most infections are asymptomatic, complications include intestinal obstruction and gall bladder disease caused by migration of proglottids. Diagnosis is made by identification of eggs or segments of the tapeworm in a stool sample with a microscope. Safe and effective medications are available to treat Diphyllobothrium. Infections are acquired by eating raw or undercooked fish, usually from the Northern Hemisphere (Europe, newly independent states of the Former Soviet Union, North America, Asia), but cases have also been reported in Uganda and Chile.

Dipylidium

This is tapeworm of cats and dogs. People become infected when they accidentally swallow a flea infected with tapeworm larvae; most reported cases involve children. Dipylidium infection is easily treated in humans and animals.

 

Dirofilariasis

Dirofilariasis in humans is caused by Dirofilaria roundworms. The main natural hosts for the three Dirofilaria species that most frequently cause disease in humans are dogs and wild canids (such as wolves and foxes) and raccoons. Humans are infected with Dirofilaria larvae through mosquito bites. Infection can result in nodules under the skin or conjunctiva and lung granulomas (small nodules formed by an inflammatory reaction) that appear as coin lesions (small, round abnormalities) on x-rays, leading to diagnostic procedures to exclude more serious diseases.

 

Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease)

This is considered a neglected tropical disease, is caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis. The disease affects poor communities in remote parts of Africa that do not have safe water to drink. There is no drug treatment for Guinea worm disease nor a vaccine to prevent it.

   

Echinococcosis (Hytadid)

This is a parasitic disease caused by infection with tiny tapeworms of the genus Echinocococcus. There are two types Cystic echinocccosis (CE), is caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, a ~2-7 millimeter long tapeworm found in dogs (definitive host) and sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs (intermediate hosts). Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic, CE causes harmful, slowly enlarging cysts in the liver, lungs, and other organs that often grow unnoticed and neglected for years. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) disease is caused by infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, a ~1-4 millimeter long tapeworm found in foxes, coyotes, and dogs (definitive hosts). Small rodents are intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis. Although cases of AE in animals in endemic areas are relatively common, human cases are rare. AE poses a much greater health threat to people than CE, causing parasitic tumors that can form in the liver, lungs, brain, and other organs. If left untreated, AE can be fatal.

   

Elephantiasis

This is a symptom of a variety of diseases, where parts of a person’s body swell to massive proportions.

Some conditions that have this symptom include:

  • Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis
  • Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti. More than 120 million people, mostly in Africa and Southeast Asia, are affected.
  • Nonfilarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease affecting the lymph vessels
  • Elephantiasis, Grade 3 lymphedema which may occur in people with breast cancer.
  • Genital elephantiasis, end result of lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man.     Source

 

Endolimax Nana

This is the smallest of the intestine-dwelling amoebae infecting humans, its trophozoite averaging only 8 μm in diameter (range, 6-15 μm). The trophozoite lives in the host’s colon and is generally considered to be nonpathogenic. According to some surveys, prevalence may be as high as 30% in some populations. The life cycle is identical to that of other cyst-forming amoebae, with the cyst being the infective stage. E. nana cysts can be identified and distinguished from other cysts by their smaller size (9 μm in greatest diameter; range, 5-14 μm, ovoid shape, and one to four vesicular nuclei, each usually containing a large, eccentric endosome).      Source

     

Entamoeba Coli

This is a non-pathogenic species of Entamoeba that frequently exists as a commensal parasite in the human gastrointestinal tractE. coli (not to be confused with the bacterium Escherichia coli) is important in medicine because it can be confused during microscopic examination of stained stool specimens with the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. This amoeba does not move much by the use of its pseudopod, and creates a “sur place (non-progressive) movement” inside the large intestine. Usually, the amoeba is immobile, and keeps its round shape. This amoeba, in its trophozoite stage, is only visible in fresh, unfixed stool specimens. Sometimes the Entamoeba coli have parasites as well. One is the fungus Sphaeritaspp. This fungus lives in the cytoplasm of the E. coli. While this differentiation is typically done by visual examination of the parasitic cysts via light microscopy, new methods using molecular biology techniques have been developed. The scientific name of the amoeba, E. coli, is often mistaken for the bacterium, Escherichia coli. Unlike the bacterium, the amoeba is mostly harmless, and does not cause as many intestinal problems as some strains of the E. coli bacterium. Some of these harmful strains are inside raw or uncooked meat that is consumed. For example, the bacterium, E. coli O157:H7, which can cause illness, and even death, if eaten. To make the naming of these organisms less confusing, “alternate contractions” are used to name the species for the purpose making the naming easier; for example, using Esch. coli and Ent. coli for the bacterium and amoeba, instead of using E. coli for both.     Source 

   

Entamoeba Dispar

   

Entamoeba Hartmanni

   

Entamoeba Histolytica

Amebiasis is a disease caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It can affect anyone, although it is more common in people who live in tropical areas with poor sanitary conditions. Diagnosis can be difficult because other parasites can look very similar to E. histolytica when seen under a microscope. Infected people do not always become sick. If your doctor determines that you are infected and need treatment, medication is available.

  

Entamoeba Polecki

Entamoeba polecki is a single-celled parasite that is found in intestines, mainly in pigs and monkeys. Other animals that it can be found in are cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, and humans. The way humans get infected is by swallowing the parasite.     Source

    

Fascioliasis

Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection typically caused by Fasciola hepatica, which is also known as “the common liver fluke” or “the sheep liver fluke.” A related parasite, Fasciola gigantica, also can infect people. Fascioliasis is found in all 5 continents, in over 50 countries, especially where sheep or cattle are reared. People usually become infected by eating raw watercress or other water plants contaminated with immature parasite larvae. The immature larval flukes migrate through the intestinal wall, the abdominal cavity, and the liver tissue, into the bile ducts, where they develop into mature adult flukes, which produce eggs. The pathology typically is most pronounced in the bile ducts and liver. Fasciola infection is both treatable and preventable.

 

Fasciolopsiasis

The intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski, which causes faciolopsiasis, is the largest intestinal fluke of humans. Fasciolopsiasis can be prevented by cooking aquatic plants well before eating them. Fasciolopsis is found in south and southeastern Asia. Fasciolopsiasis is treatable.

 

Giardiasis

Giardia is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Giardia (also known as Giardia intestinalisGiardia lamblia, or Giardia duodenalis) is found on surfaces or in soil, food, or water that has been contaminated with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals.

Giardia is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time and makes it tolerant to chlorine disinfection. While the parasite can be spread in different ways, water (drinking water and recreational water) is the most common mode of transmission.
   

Gnathostomiasis

Human gnathostomiasis is caused by several species of parasitic worms (nematodes) in the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is found and is most commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asia, though it has also been found elsewhere in Asia, in South and Central America, and in some areas of Africa. People become infected primarily by eating undercooked or raw freshwater fish, eels, frogs, birds, and reptiles. The most common manifestations of the infection in humans are migratory swellings under the skin and increased levels of eosinophils in the blood. Rarely, the parasite can enter other tissues such as the liver, and the eye, resulting in vision loss or blindness, and the nerves, spinal cord, or brain, resulting in nerve pain, paralysis, coma and death.

 

Heterophyiasis

The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting undercooked or salted fish containing metacercariae. After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst, attach to the mucosa of the small intestine and mature into adults. The main symptoms are diarrhea and colicky abdominal pain. Migration of the eggs to the heart, resulting in potentially fatal myocardial and valvular damage, has been reported from the Philippines. Migration to other organs (e.g., brain) has also been reported.

 

Hookworm Human

Hookworm, Ascaris, and whipworm are known as soil transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). Together, they account for a major burden of disease worldwide. Hookworms live in the small intestine. Hookworm eggs are passed in the feces of an infected person. If the infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) of if the feces of an infected person are used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. They can then mature and hatch, releasing larvae (immature worms). The larvae mature into a form that can penetrate the skin of humans. Hookworm infection is mainly acquired by walking barefoot on contaminated soil. One kind of hookworm can also be transmitted through the ingestion of larvae.

Most people infected with hookworms have no symptoms. Some have gastrointestinal symptoms, especially persons who are infected for the first time. The most serious effects of hookworm infection are blood loss leading to anemia, in addition to protein loss. Hookworm infections are treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider.
   

Hookworm Zoonotic

Zoonotic hookworms are hookworms that live in animals but can be transmitted to humans. Dogs and cats can become infected with several hookworm species, including Ancylostoma brazilenseA. caninumA. ceylanicum, and Uncinaria stenocephala. The eggs of these parasites are shed in the feces of infected animals and can end up in the environment, contaminating the ground where the animal defecated. People become infected when the zoonotic hookworm larvae penetrate unprotected skin, especially when walking barefoot or sitting on contaminated soil or sand. This can result in a disease called cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), when the larvae migrate through the skin and cause inflammation.

 

Hymenolepiasis

This infection with the dwarf tapeworm is found worldwide. It is most often seen in children in countries in which sanitation and hygiene are inadequate. Although the dwarf tapeworm infection rarely causes symptoms, it can be misdiagnosed for pinworm infection.

 

Kala-azar

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found in parts of the tropics, subtropics, and southern Europe. It is classified as a neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are spread by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. There are several different forms of leishmaniasis in people. The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow).

 

Keratitis

This is a condition in which the eye‘s cornea, the clear dome on the front surface of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves any of the following symptoms: pain, impaired eyesight, photophobia (light sensitivity)red eye and a ‘gritty’ sensation.     Source

     

Loiasis

Loiasis, called African eye worm by most people, is caused by the parasitic worm Loa loa. It is passed on to humans through the repeated bites of deerflies (also known as mango flies or mangrove flies) of the genus Chrysops. The flies that pass on the parasite breed in certain rain forests of West and Central Africa. Infection with the parasite can also cause repeated episodes of itchy swellings of the body known as Calabar swellings. Knowing whether someone has a Loa loa infection has become more important in Africa because the presence of people with Loa loa infection has limited programs to control or eliminate (river blindness) and (elephantiasis). There may be more than 29 million people who are at risk of getting loaisis in affected areas of Central and West Africa.
   

Lymph Filariasis

Lymphatic filariasis, considered globally as a neglected tropical disease, is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The lymph system maintains the body’s fluid balance and fights infections. Lymphatic filariasis is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Communities frequently shun and reject women and men disfigured by the disease. Affected people frequently are unable to work because of their disability, and this harms their families and their communities.
   

Malaria

This is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.

 

Microsporidiosis

The microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasitic fungi. Historically, they have been treated among the protozoa, and as such are often still managed by diagnostic parasitology laboratories. To date, more than 1,200 species belonging to 143 genera have been described as parasites infecting a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Microsporidia, are characterized by the production of resistant spores that vary in size, depending on the species. They possess a unique organelle, the polar tubule or polar filament, which is coiled inside the spore as demonstrated by its ultrastructure. The microsporidia spores of species associated with human infection measure from 1 to 4 µm and that is a useful diagnostic feature. There are at least 15 microsporidian species that have been identified as human pathogens: Anncaliia (formerly Brachiola) algerae, A. connori, A. vesicularum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, E. hellemE. intestinalisEnterocytozoon bieneusi Microsporidium ceylonensisM. africanumNosema ocularum, Pleistophora sp.,Trachipleistophora hominisT. anthropophtheraVittaforma corneae, and Tubulinosema acridophagusEncephalitozoon intestinalis
   

Myiasis

Myiasis is the infection of a fly larva (maggot) in human tissue. This occurs in tropical and subtropical areas. Myiasis is rarely acquired in the United States; people typically get the infection when they travel to tropical areas in Africa and South America. People traveling with untreated and open wounds are more at risk for getting myiasis. Fly larvae need to be surgically removed by a medical professional.

 

Naegleria

Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” or “brain-eating ameba”), is a free-living microscopic ameba, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a rare and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the ameba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances, Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tap water) enters the nose. You cannot get infected from swallowing water contaminated with Naegleria.

 

Neurocysticercosis

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection that results from ingestion of eggs from the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium (T. solium) (,). When cysticercosis involves the central nervous system, it is called neurocysticercosis. Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the brain and a leading cause of epilepsy in the developing world, especially Latin America, India, Africa, and China ().     Source

 

Opisthorchiasis

Opisthorchis species are liver fluke parasites acquired by eating raw or undercooked fish from endemic countries: Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet Nam, and other areas of Asia, Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union. While most infected persons are asymptomatic, infections of longer duration can result in severe symptoms and serious illness. Diagnosis is based on identification of eggs in stool specimens with a microscope. Safe and effective medication is available to treat Opisthorchis infections. Adequately freezing or cooking fish will kill the parasite.

 

Paragonimiasis

Paragonimus is a lung fluke (flatworm) that infects the lungs of humans after eating an infected raw or undercooked crab or crayfish. Less frequent, but more serious cases of paragonimiasis occur when the parasite travels to the central nervous system. Although rare, paragonimiasis has been acquired in the United States, with multiple cases reported from the Midwest. Once the diagnosis is made, effective treatment for paragonimiasis is available from a physician.
   

Pediculosis Lice

Lice are parasitic insects that can be found on people’s heads, and bodies, including the pubic area. Human lice survive by feeding on human blood. Lice found on each area of the body are different from each other. Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse) and Pediculus humanus corporis(body louse, clothes louse). Only the body louse is known to spread disease. Lice infestations are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Both over-the-counter and prescription medications are available for treatment of lice infestations.
   

Pneumocystis

Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously classified as Pneumocystis carinii) was previously classified as a protozoa. Currently, it is considered a fungus based on nucleic acid and biochemical analysis.

 

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

This is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted through repeated bites by blackflies of the genus Simulium. The disease is called River Blindness because the blackfly that transmits the infection lives and breeds near fast-flowing streams and rivers and the infection can result in blindness. In addition to visual impairment or blindness, onchocerciasis causes skin disease, including nodules under the skin or debilitating itching. Worldwide onchocerciasis is second only to trachoma as an infectious cause of blindness.

 

Roundworm Human (ascariasis)

 Ascaris lives in the intestine and Ascaris eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If the infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if the feces of an infected person are used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. They can then mature into a form that is infective. Ascariasis is caused by ingesting eggs. This can happen when hands or fingers that have contaminated dirt on them are put in the mouth or by consuming vegetables or fruits that have not been carefully cooked, washed or peeled. People infected with Ascaris often show no symptoms. If symptoms do occur they can be light and include abdominal discomfort. Heavy infections can cause intestinal blockage and impair growth in children. Other symptoms such as cough are due to migration of the worms through the body. Ascariasis is treatable with medication prescribed by your health care provider.
    

Roundworm Raccoon

Baylisascaris infection is caused by a roundworm found in raccoons. This roundworm can infect people as well as a variety of other animals, including dogs. Human infections are rare, but can be severe if the parasites invade the eye (ocular larva migrans), organs (visceral larva migrans) or the brain (neural larva migrans).

 

Sappinia

This is a free-living ameba, or amoeba (a single-celled living organism), found in the environment. There are two known species of Sappinia: Sappinia diploidea and Sappinia pedata. This ameba causes amebic encephalitis, which is an infection of the brain. Worldwide, only one case of amebic encephalitis due to Sappinia infection has been reported.

 

Sarcocystosis

Sarcocystosis is a disease caused by a microscopic parasite Sarcocystis. In humans, two types of the disease can occur, one causes diarrhea, mild fever, and vomiting (intestinal type), and the other type causes muscle pain, transitory edema, and fever (muscular type). However, most people infected with Sarcocystis do not have symptoms. Sarcocystosis occurs in tropical or subtropical countries. Muscular sarcocystosis has most often been reported from countries in Southeast Asia.

 

Scabies

Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

Scabies occurs worldwide and affects people of all races and social classes. Scabies can spread rapidly under crowded conditions where close body contact is frequent. Institutions such as nursing homes, extended-care facilities, and prisons are often sites of scabies outbreaks.
    

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic worms. Although the worms that cause schistosomiasis are not found in the United States, more than 200 million people are infected worldwide. In terms of impact this disease is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease. The parasites that cause schistosomiasis live in certain types of freshwater snails. The infectious form of the parasite, known as cercariae, emerge from the snail, hence contaminating water. You can become infected when your skin comes in contact with contaminated freshwater. Most human infections are caused by Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, or S. japonicum.
    

Strongyloidiasis

It is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes, or roundworms, in the genus Strongyloides that enter the body through exposed skin, such as bare feet. Strongyloides is most common in tropical or subtropical climates.Most people who are infected with Strongyloides do not know they are infected and have no symptoms. Others may develop a severe form and, if untreated, become critically ill and potentially die.
    

Tapeworm (Human)

Taeniasis in humans is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm species Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), and Taenia asiatica (Asian tapeworm). Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked beef (T. saginata) or pork (T. soliumand T. asiatica). People with taeniasis may not know they have a tapeworm infection because symptoms are usually mild or nonexistent. Taenia soliumtapeworm infections can lead to cysticercosis, which is a disease that can cause seizures, so it is important seek treatment.
    

Toxocariasis (Roundworm)

This can also cause Ocular Larva Migrans: Toxocariasis is the parasitic disease caused by the larvae of two species of Toxocararoundworms: Toxocara canis from dogs and, less commonly, Toxocara cati from cats. Toxocariasis is considered one of the neglected parasitic infectionshttps://www.cdc.gov/parasites/npi, a group of five parasitic diseases that have been targeted by CDC for public health action.

 

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is considered to be a leading cause of death attributed to foodborne illness in the United States. More than 60 million men, women, and children in the U.S. carry the Toxoplasma parasite, but very few have symptoms because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. However, women newly infected with Toxoplasma during pregnancy and anyone with a compromised immune system should be aware that toxoplasmosis can have severe consequences.
    

Trichinellosis

Trichinellosis, also called trichinosis, is a disease that people can get by eating raw or undercooked meat from animals infected with the microscopic parasite Trichinella.
   

Trichomoniasis

This is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Both men and women can get trichomoniasis. Many people who have trichomoniasis don’t know it. The infection often has no symptoms. Women are more likely than men to get symptoms. You can pass trichomoniasis to others without knowing it. Trichomoniasis is easy to treat and cure. Women should be tested for trichomoniasis if you have any of these symptoms: A discharge from your vagina, pain when you have sex, pain when you pass urine.
   

Trichuriasis

An estimated 604-795 million people in the world are infected with whipworm. Whipworm, hookworm, and Ascaris are known as soil transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). Together, they account for a major burden of disease worldwide. Whipworms live in the large intestine and whipworm eggs are passed in the feces of infected persons. If the infected person defecates outside (near bushes, in a garden, or field) or if human feces as used as fertilizer, eggs are deposited on soil. They can then mature into a form that is infective. Whipworm infection is caused by ingesting eggs. This can happen when hands or fingers that have contaminated dirt on them are put in the mouth.

 

Trypanosomiasis

This is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasiticprotozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. In humans this includes African trypanosomiasisand Chagas disease. 

The tsetse fly bite erupts into a red chancre sore and within a few weeks, the person can experience fever, swollen lymph glands, blood in urine, aching muscles and joints, headaches and irritability. In the first phase, the patient has only intermittent bouts of fever with lymphadenopathy together with other non-specific signs and symptoms. The second stage of the disease is marked by involvement of the central nervous system with extensive neurological effects like changes in personality, alteration of the biological clock (the circadian rhythm), confusion, slurred speech, seizures and difficulty in walking and talking. These problems can develop over many years and if not treated, the person dies. It is common to the African continent.     Source