Bio-Resonance Results Glossary Vitals Endocrine Glands


The endocrine system helps regulate bodily functions through hormone secretion. Learn about the organs and hormones involved, as well as how they work.

Adrenal Cortex

The outer portion of the adrenal gland located on top of each kidney. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones which regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism and mineralocorticoid hormones which regulate salt and water balance in the body.


Adrenal Medulla

Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In fact, these adrenal medullary cells are modified postganglionic neurons, and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla therefore affects available energy, heart rate, and metabolism.



The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, “under” and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is the size of an almond.

The hypothalamus is responsible for the regulation of certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviours, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.  Source



These are organs found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilised by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin ovarium, meaning egg/nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause. It is also an endocrine gland because of the various hormones that it secretes.  Source




The male sex gland, located behind the penis in a pouch of skin called the scrotum. The testes produce and store sperm and are also the body’s main source of male hormones, such as testosterone. These hormones control the development of the reproductive organs and other male characteristics, such as body and facial hair, low voice, and wide shoulders. Also, known as testicle.


It is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, all of which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme moving in from the stomach, as well as digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme. The pancreas is known as a mixed gland.  Source


They are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, variably located on the back of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin (one of the hormones made by the thyroid gland) have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.     Source


Pineal Body

The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. Melatonin released into the blood and possibly also into the brain fluid, known as cerebrospinal fluid. The body’s daily (circadian) clock controls the production of pineal melatonin, so melatonin is commonly used in human research to understand the body’s biological time.

Pituitary, Anterior

The anterior pituitary contains five types of endocrine cell, and they are defined by the hormones they secrete: somatotropes (GH); prolactins (PRL); gonadotropes (LH and FSH); corticotropes (ACTH) and thyrotropes (TSH). Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are trophic hormones and tropic hormones. Trophic hormones directly affect growth either as hyperplasia or hypertrophy on the tissue it is stimulating. Tropic hormones are named for their ability to act directly on target tissues or other endocrine glands to release hormones, causing numerous cascading physiological responses. The anterior pituitary is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland.


Pituitary, Posterior

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system. The posterior pituitary secretes the hormone oxytocin which increases uterine contractions and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which increases reabsorption of water by the tubules of the kidney. Underproduction of ADH results in a disorder called diabetes insipidus characterized by inability to concentrate the urine and, consequently, excess urination leading potentially to dehydration. The urine is “insipid” (overly dilute).



Thyroid hormone (Triiodothyronine or T3) regulates our metabolic rate and is associated with modest changes in body weight and energy levels. it is an endocrine gland located in the front of our necks. It stores and produces hormones that affect the function of virtually every organ in our bodies. It plays a major role in the metabolism, growth and maturation of the human body. It helps to regulate many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of hormones into the bloodstream. More hormones are produced when the body needs more energy, like when it is growing or cold, or during pregnancy.


The uterus has three layers: the inner lining (endometrium); the middle muscular layer (myometrium); and the outer layer (perimetrium). The uterus is connected to the fallopian tubes, the cervix, and (via the cervix) the vagina. The main purpose of the uterus is to nourish a fetus prior to birth.


Is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.     Source