Bio-Resonance Results Glossary Vitals Bone and Muscle Condition


Strong bones and muscles protect against injury and improves balance and coordination. In addition active adults experience less joint stiffness and improved flexibility. This becomes especially important as we get older because it helps to prevent falls and the broken bones that may result.

Adhesions of the Shoulder Muscles

The shoulder capsule thickens, swells, and tightens due to bands of scar tissue (adhesions) that have formed inside the capsule. As a result, there is less room in the joint for the humerus, making movement of the shoulder stiff and painful. 


Age of Ligaments (Flexibility/Limberness)

This refers to the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints, and length in muscles that cross the joints to induce a bending movement or motion.


Some of the physical changes attributed to aging are the following:
  • An increased amount of calcium deposits, adhesions, and cross-links in the body
  • An increase in the level of fragmentation and dehydration
  • Changes in the chemical structure of the tissues.
  • Loss of suppleness due to the replacement of muscle fibers with fatty, collagenous fibers.

When connective tissue is overused, the tissue becomes fatigued and may tear, which also limits flexibility. When connective tissue is unused or under used, it provides significant resistance and limits flexibility. The elastin begins to fray and loses some of its elasticity, and the collagen increases in stiffness and in density. Aging has some of the same effects on connective tissue that lack of use has.

This does not mean that you should give up trying to achieve flexibility if you are old or inflexible. It just means that you need to work harder, and more carefully, for a longer period of time when attempting to increase flexibility. Increases in the ability of muscle tissues and connective tissues to elongate (stretch) can be achieved at any age.


Disc, Protrusion

This is a disease condition which can occur in some vertebrates, including humans, in which the outermost layers of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral discs of the spine are intact, but bulge when one or more of the discs are under pressure.


Disc, Degenerative 

This is a condition of the discs between vertebrae with loss of cushioning, fragmentation and herniation related to aging. There may be no symptoms. In some cases, the spine loses flexibility and bone spurs may pinch a nerve root, causing pain or weakness.


Joints, Range of Motion

Range of motion (ROM) is a measurement of the distance and direction a joint can move to its full potential. A joint is a location in the body where bones connect. Most of them are constructed to allow movement in predetermined directions.    Source


Bone Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia is an increase in the amount oforganic tissue that results from cell proliferation. In bones it leads to a thickening of the bone which will result in the obstruction of movement in joints, muscles and ligaments. Pain is its main symptom. This pathological hyperplasia can happen on cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, joint, calcaneus and so on, including hypertrophic spondylitis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, calcaneus spur and so on. Bone hyperplasia can be associated with incorrect posture, age, trauma, and strain.

Bone Mineral Density

BMD, a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as represented by calcium content. The BMD test detects osteopenia (mild bone loss, usually without symptoms) and osteoporosis (more severe bone loss, which may cause symptoms).

Calcification, Cervical

As people age, the ligaments of the spine can thicken and harden (called calcification). Bones and joints may also enlarge, and bone spurs (called osteophytes) may form. Bulging or herniated discs are also common. Spondylolisthesis (the slipping of one vertebra onto another) also occurs and leads to compression. Calcification of the cervical region is referring  to the area of the neck.

Calcification, Lumbar

As people age, the ligaments of the spine can thicken and harden (called calcification). Bones and joints may also enlarge, and bone spurs (called osteophytes) may form. Bulging or herniated discs are also common. Spondylolisthesis (the slipping of one vertebra onto another) also occurs and leads to compression. Calcification of the lumbar region is referring  to the area of the lower spine.

Calcification, Sacrum

As people age, the ligaments of the spine can thicken and harden (called calcification). Bones and joints may also enlarge, and bone spurs (called osteophytes) may form. Bulging or herniated discs are also common. The sacroiliac joint connects the sacrum (the triangular bone at the bottom of the lumbar spine) on both sides to the pelvis’s ilium. The sacrum and the ilium are connected with a powerful network of ligaments.  

The sacroiliac joint is highly susceptible to enthesitis and inflammation because it undergoes significant physical stresses and It has a relatively high concentration of fibrocartilage at the enthuses.

Sacroiliac joint inflammation can cause radiating pain that travels from the buttock to the thigh or lower back. Continued sacroiliitis and the inflammation-erosion-calcification cycle can eventually lead the bones of the sacroiliac joint to fuse together. While a normal sacroiliac joint has a minimal range of motion measured in just millimeters, sacroiliac joint fusion and immobility can cause pain as well as difficulty with bending forward, backward, and side-to-side.


Calcification, Thoracic

As people age, the ligaments of the spine can thicken and harden (called calcification). Bones and joints may also enlarge, and bone spurs (called osteophytes) may form. Bulging or herniated discs are also common. Spondylolisthesis (the slipping of one vertebra onto another) also occurs and leads to compression. Calcification of the thoracic region is referring  to the area of the midback.

Calcium Loss

Calcium deficiency disease, also known as hypocalcemia, increases the risk of developing diseases like osteoporosis. Symptoms of hypocalcemia can include weak hair, nails, memory loss, and seizures.

Osteoclast Function

A type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue. This function is critical in the maintenance, repair, and remodelling of bones of the vertebral skeleton. The osteoclast disassembles and digests the composite of hydrated protein and mineral at a molecular level by secreting acid and a collagenase, a process known as bone resorption. This process also helps regulate the level of blood calcium.


A medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D. The body constantly absorbs and replaces bone tissue. With osteoporosis, new bone creation doesn’t keep up with old bone removal.

Rheumatism (rheumatic disorder)

This is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue. Any disease marked by inflammation and pain in thejoints, muscles, or fibrous tissue, especially rheumatoid arthritis. The term “rheumatism”, however, does not designate any specific disorder, but covers at least 200 different conditions.


Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

This is the result of thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries in the brain. Symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosis include headache, facial pain, and impaired vision. If the walls of an artery are too thick, or a blood clot becomes caught in the narrow passage, blood flow to the brain can become blocked and cause an ischemic stroke. When the thickening and hardening is uneven, arterial walls can develop bulges (called aneurysms). If a bulge ruptures, bleeding in the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal.

Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in the elderly, such as apathy, weeping, transient befuddlement, or irritability, might indicate that cerebral arteriosclerosis is present in the brain. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain can help reveal the presence of cerebral arteriosclerosis before ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, or vascular dementia develop.


Cranial Nerves

Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head (C1) emerging in the space above the first cervical vertebra. The cranial nerves emerge from the central nervous system above this level.

Each cranial nerve is paired and is present on both sides. The numbering of the cranial nerves is based on the order in which they emerge from the brain, front to back (brainstem).

The terminal nerves, olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves (II) emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system. However, on a structural level, the olfactory, optic, and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system.


Cranial Nerve l, Olfactory

This nerve is instrumental for the sense of smell. It is one of the few nerves that are capable of regeneration.


Cranial Nerve II, Optic

This nerve carries visual information from the retina of the eye to the brain.


Cranial Nerve III, Oculomotor

This controls most of the eye’s movements, the constriction of the pupil, and maintains an open eyelid.


Cranial Nerve IV, Trochlear

A motor nerve that innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which controls rotational movement.


Cranial Nerve V, Trigeminal

This is responsible for sensation and motor function in the face and mouth.


Cranial Nerve VI, Abducens

A motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which controls lateral movement.


Cranial Nerve VII, Facial

This controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity.


Cranial Nerve VIII, Vestibulocochlear

This is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.


Cranial Nerve IX, Glossopharyngeal

This nerve receives sensory information from the tonsils, the pharynx, the middle ear, and the rest of the tongue.


Cranial Nerve X, Vagus

The vagus nerve can be thought of a superhighway that connects your body and your brain. It innervates most organs in the body; the messages zip along its five lanes of traffic with four lanes delivering information from the body to the brain and one lane moving information from the brain to the body. This is the most obvious physical representation of the mind-body connection. The vagus nerve both senses your internal environment (via its sensory neurons) and affects it (via its motor neurons). 

Some of the functions of the vagus nerve have been long established, while others were discovered only recently. 

Here is what we know about the vagus nerve so far:

  1. It is intimately involved in managing sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS).  Here is a quick reminder how ANS works. The vagus nerve provides 75% of all parasympathetic outflow. When the brain triggers parasympathetic activation, the vagus nerve carries the messages to the heart (decreasing the heart rate and blood pressure), to the lungs (to constrict the respiratory passageways), to every organ in the digestive system (to increase motility and blood flow to the digestive tract, to promote defecation), to the kidneys and bladder (to promote urination) and to reproductive organs (to aid in sexual arousal)
  2. It communicates messages between the gut and the brain. 80% of the vagus nerve’s fibers (4 out of 5 traffic lanes) deliver information from the enteric nervous system (the second brain in the gut) to the brain.
  3. It regulates the muscle movement necessary to keep you breathing. Your brain communicates with your diaphragm via the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from the vagus nerve to keep you breathing. If the vagus nerve stops releasing acetylcholine, you will stop breathing.
  4. It helps decrease inflammation. This occurs through the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  5. It has profound control over heart rate and blood pressure. For example, patients with heart failure, in which the heart fails to pump enough blood through the body, tend to have less active vagus nerves. 
  6. It helps improve your mood. Research shows that stimulation of the vagus nerve can be an effective treatment for chronic depression that has failed to respond to other treatments. 
  7. It is essential in fear management. Remember that “gut instinct” that tells you when something isn’t right? Turns out that the vagus nerve plays a major role in that. The signals from your gut get sent to the brain via the vagus nerve, and the signals from the brain travel back to the gut, forming a feedback loop. Healthy functioning of the vagus nerve helps us bounce back from stressful situations and overcome fear conditioning.
  8. It plays a role in learning and memory. The vagus nerve facilitates learning and re-wiring, so to speak. New findings about the vagus nerve offer exciting possibilities for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stimulation of the vagus nerve might be able to speed up the process by which people with PTSD can learn to reassociate a non-threatening stimuli which triggers anxiety with a neutral and non-traumatic experience”. It can also help with healing sexual stress and trauma.
  9. It can help relieve cluster headaches.


Cranial Nerve XI, Spinal Accessory

This nerve controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck.


Cranial Nerve XII, Hypoglossal Nerve

This nerve controls the tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing.


Memory Index (ZS)

This reflects the strength of a person’s memory. Cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral atrophy and others will lead to insufficient blood supply to the brain. The functional declination of hippocampal cells in the brain is the histological reason for memory decline in the elderly. Memory is divided into two kinds: one is auditory memory and visual memory.


  • If the Memory Index readings are high this may indicate impaired short term memory.
  • If the Memory Index readings are low this may indicate impaired long term memory.


Parasymapthetic Nervous System Function

This (usually abbreviated PSNS, not PNS, to avoid confusion with the peripheral nervous system) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the body’s unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of “rest-and-digest” or “feed and breed” activities that occur when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, digestion and defecation. Its action is described as being complementary to that of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response.


Nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system arise from the central nervous system. Specific nerves include several cranial nerves, specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and vagus nerve. Three spinal nerves in the sacrum (S2-4), commonly referred to as the pelvic splanchnic nerves, also act as parasympathetic nerves. Because of its location, the parasympathetic system is commonly referred to as having “craniosacral outflow”, which stands in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have “thoracolumbar outflow”.


Sympathetic Nervous System Function (SNS)

This is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS). The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body’s unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system’s primary process is to stimulate the body’s fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis. 



Blood Fat

Blood Lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.  They are mostly transported in a protein capsule, and the density of the lipids and type of protein determines the fate of the particle and its influence on metabolism.  The concentration of blood lipids depends on intake and excretion from the intestine, and uptake and secretion from cells.  Blood lipids are mainly fatty acids and cholesterol.  Hyperlipidemia is the presence of elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and /or lipoproteins in the blood, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Blood Viscosity

Blood viscosity is the thickness and stickiness of blood.  It is a direct measure of the ability of blood to flow through the vessels. It is also a key screening test that measures how much friction the blood causes against the vessels, how hard the heart has to work to pump blood, and how much oxygen is delivered to organs and tissues.  Importantly, high blood viscosity is easily modifiable with safe lifestyle-based interventions.


Brain Tissue Blood Supply Status

Brain Blood Supply; Blood transports oxygen and other nutrients necessary for the health of neurons, so a constant flow of blood to the brain must be maintained.  According to Love and Webb, 1992, the brain uses approximately twenty percent of the body’s blood and needs twenty-five percent of the body’s oxygen supply to function optimally.  Blood flow in a healthy person is 54 milliliters per 1000 grams of brain weight per minute.  There are 740 milliliters of blood circulating in the brain every minute. 3.3 milliliters of oxygen are used per minute by every 1000 grams of brain tissue.  This means that approximately 46 milliliters of oxygen are used by the entire brain in one minute.  During sleep, blood flow to the brain is increased, but the rate of oxygen consumption remains the same.


Cerebral Blood Vessel Elasticity

Cerebral Blood Vessel Elasticity; Like a steel cylindrical pipe, an artery is comprised of an inner space (the “lumen”, filled with blood) enclosed by a wall.  The wall is made up of a number of layers, two of which are muscle tissue and elastic tissue.  When a region of the blood vessel wall weakens, it can balloon out to form a sac-like structure.  This structure is called an aneurysm (a word derived from the Greek, aneurysma – widening), and the major problem associated with aneurysms is that they can rupture, an event, which may be fatal.


Cerebral Blood Vessel Resistance

Cerebrovascular Blood Oxygen Pressure (PaO2)

In the alveoli, the partial pressure of oxygen is around 100 mm Hg and that of carbon dioxide is around 40 mm Hg.  In the cells of the body, the PaO2 is closer to 40. The range of normal for Pa02 is 75 – 100 mm Hg. If your Pa02 is less than this, it means you are not getting enough oxygen.

It is the differences in partial pressure between the capillaries and alveoli that drive oxygen from the alveoli into the capillaries in the lungs, and it is the difference between partial pressures of oxygen in the blood and that in the cells that drives the flow of oxygen from the tissue capillaries into cells. PaO2 is a measure of all the oxygen in the blood – both that which is attached to hemoglobin, and that which is dissolved in the plasma. The majority of oxygen is carried in the blood attached to hemoglobin and only around 1.5% is dissolved in plasma. A low-level of oxygen in the blood is referred to as hypoxemia.  When hypoxemia results in a low level of oxygen in tissues it is then referred to as hypoxia. Tissue hypoxia results in tissue damage, and if not corrected, eventually cell death.


Cerebrovascular Blood Oxygen Saturation (Sa)

SaO2 is a measure of how much hemoglobin is occupied by oxygen.


Cerebrovascular Blood Oxygen Volume (CaCO2)


Cholesterol Crystal

Cholesterol Crystals, as cholesterol builds up along the wall of an artery, it crystallizes from a liquid to a solid state and then expands.  When the cholesterol crystallizes, two things can happen.  If it’s a big pool of cholesterol, it will expand, causing the “cap’ of the deposit to tear off in the arterial wall.  Or the crystals, which are sharp needle-like structures, pole their way through the cap covering the cholesterol deposit.  The crystals then work their way into the bloodstream.  It is the presence of this material, as well as damage to an artery, that disrupts plaque and puts the body’s natural defense mechanism – clotting – into action, which can lead to dangerous, if not fatal clots.  Cholesterol in moderation is healthy and necessary for life.


Coronary Artery Elasticity

Coronary Artery Elasticity is also referred to as arteriosclerosis, which is a group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls which progressively blocks the coronary arteries and their branches.  Arteriosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular disability and death.  Other forms of arteriosclerosis include arteriolosclerosis and medialcalcific stenosis, both of which are uncommon in the coronary vasculature.


Coronary Artery Resistance


Coronary Perfusion Pressure

Coronary Perfusion Pressure; the heart is an aerobic organ that is dependent for its oxygen supply entirely on coronary perfusion.  Under resting condition, the myocardium extracts the maximum amount of oxygen from the blood it receives.  The O2 saturation of blood returning from the coronary sinus to the right atrium has the lowest saturation of any body organ (30%).  Interruption of coronary blood flow will result in immediate ischemia.  Coronary blood flow is directly dependent upon perfusion pressure and inversely proportional to the resistance of the coronary vessel.  Coronary perfusion occurs in diastole hence diastolic pressure is more important than systolic pressure in determining coronary perfusion.  Coronary vessels are divided into epicardial or conductance vessels (R1), pre capillary (R2) and microvascular vessels (R3).  The epicardial vessels, the site most commonly affected by atherosclerosis, offer negligible resistance to coronary flow.  Resistance to flow occurs in the pre capillary (R2), and microvascular (R3) vessels which are termed resistance vessels.  The increase coronary blood flow in response to increase myocardial oxygen demand (MVO2) is achieved by the dilation of these resistance vessels.  Three factors play a key role in modifying vascular tone; the accumulation of local metabolites, endothelial factors and neural tone.  The accumulation of adenosine during ischemia is an example of local metabolic factors.  The most important endothelial substance mediating vasodilation is nitric oxide (NO).  Other important mediators are bradykinin, endothelium derived 2 hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin.  On the other hand, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a well-known vasoconstricting substance.  Angiotensin II and thromboxane A2 are other well-known endothelium derived constricting factors.  Alpha-receptor adrenergic stimulation results in coronary vasoconstriction whereas beta 1 receptor stimulation leads to vasodilatation.


This protein has been shown to be involved in the following biological processes: cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell growth and differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Given galectin-3’s broad biological functionality, it has been demonstrated to be involved in cancer, inflammation and fibrosis, heart disease, and stroke. have also shown that the expression of galectin-3 is implicated in a variety of processes associated with heart failure, including myofibroblast proliferation, fibrogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, and ventricular remodeling. Galectin-3 associates with the primary cilium and modulates renal cyst growth in congenital polycystic kidney disease. 

Total Peripheral Resistance(TPR)

Resistance to blood flow through arterioles and capillaries. the total resistance to flow of blood in the systemic circuit; the quotient produced by dividing the mean arterial pressure by the cardiac minute-volume.


Left Ventricular Effective Pump Power

The left ventricle is one of four chambers of the heart. It is located in the bottom left portion of the heart below the left atrium, separated by the mitral valve. The thickest of all the chambers, the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to tissues all over the body.

The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood out to the Body to serve the vital needs of every cell of your Body. It pumps most effectively with a pronounced stretching of its’ muscular wall, which creates an optimal recoil effect (“Starlings’ Effect”). This generates the greatest force with each Ventricular Systole (the contraction of the heart ventricles) and the most effective emptying of the left ventricle.

It is very important for the health of your Left Ventricle to be physically active. The Heart is an Electro-Mechanical Pump. By staying active, you help to optimize the strength of the entire Heart musculature.

This also optimizes blood flow to all the cells of your body, which optimizes the function of all the internal organs, as well as your nervous system and sensoria. Sensorium (plural) are those parts of the brain that receive, process and interpret sensory stimuli. 

A sensory stimulus is any event or object that is received by the senses and elicits a response from a person. The stimulus can come in many forms such as light, heat, sound, touch, as well as from internal factors.     Source


Left Ventricular Ejection Impedance

This reflects the indicators of resistance status of the left ventricular outflow channel.

Influence Factors:

  1. The fact whether the outflow channel has lesion. The aortic stenosis and other conditions can make VER increased. 
  2. The outflow channel has no lesion, while the emptying rate of aortic blood is slow, so VER is increased.
  3. The entire vascular resistance is large.


Myocardial Blood Demand

The heart normally receives 4% of cardiac output, or ~ 250 mL/min of blood. Fatty acids and lactate are the predominant sources of energy, although glucose can be utilized. The myocardium cannot compensate for underperfusion by increasing oxygen extraction significantly (maximal ER is 90%), and thus the only compensatory mechanisms available are to increase blood flow by either changing regional vascular resistance or perfusion pressure.

There are two settings in which myocardial supply and demand can be mismatched – profoundly low perfusion pressures, and irreversible stenosis. In the latter setting, vasodilation of non-critically stenoses vessels can shunt blood away from fixed-diameter vessels, leading to a decrease in coronary blood flow to a susceptible region, a phenomena know as “coronary steal.”


Myocardial Blood Perfusion Volume

Myocardial Blood Perfusion is the damage to the heart and the risk of future heart damage.

Myocardial Oxygen Consumption

Myocardial Oxygen Balance is determined by the ratio of oxygen supply to oxygen demand.  Increasing oxygen supply by increasing either arterial oxygen content or coronary blood flow leads to an increase in tissue oxygen levels (usually measured as the partial pressure of oxygen, pO2).  Increasing oxygen demand alone (i.e. myocardial oxygen consumption) decreases tissue oxygen levels.  Normally, when oxygen demand increases there is a proportionate increase in coronary blood flow and oxygen supply so that tissue oxygen levels are maintained during times of increased oxygen demand.  This increase in blood flow is performed by local regulatory mechanisms.  This tight coupling between oxygen demand and coronary blood flow is impaired in coronary artery disease because oxygen supply is limited by vascular stenosis. 


BNP and NT-proBNP are substances that are produced in the heart and released when the heart is stretched and working hard to pump blood. Heart failure can be confused with other conditions, and it may co-exist with them. BNP and NT-proBNP levels can help doctors differentiate between heart failure and other problems, such as lung disease. An accurate diagnosis is important because the treatments are often different and must be started as soon as possible. Higher-than-normal results suggest that a person has some degree of heart failure, and the level of BNP or NT-proBNP in the blood is related to its severity. Although BNP and NT-proBNP are usually used to recognize heart failure, an increased level in people with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) indicates an increased risk of recurrent events.


Pulse Wave Velocity Coefficient 

Arterial stiffness can be assessed noninvasively with the use of pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement, that is, the velocity of the pulse wave to travel a given distance between 2 sites of the arterial system. Aortic PWV determined from a single measurement is strongly associated with the presence and extent of atherosclerosis and that this measurement is highly related to cardiovascular risk as assessed by the standard Framingham equations.


Stroke Index

A cardiodynamic measure. Stroke volume is the amount of blood the left ventricle ejects in one beat, measured in milliliters per beat (ml/beat). The stroke volume can be indexed to a patient’s body size by dividing by the body surface area to yield the stroke index.


Stroke Volume (SV) (Cardiac Stroke Volume)

This is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction.  The stroke volume is not all of the blood contained in the left ventricle.  The heart does not pump all the blood out of the ventricle.  Normally, only about two-thirds of the blood in the ventricle is put out with each beat.  What blood is actually pumped from the left ventricle is the stroke volume and it, together with the heart rate, determines the cardiac output, the output of blood by the heart per minute.  Stroke volume is an important determinant of cardiac output, which is the product of stroke volume and heart rate.  Because stroke volume decreases in certain conditions and disease states, stroke volume itself correlates with cardiac function.  Assessment of the cardiac output is important in determining the work that the heart is actually performing with respect to the rest of the cardiovascular system.


Vascular Elasticity

To understand Blood Vessel Elasticity, we first need to understand the anatomy of the vessels.  There are three types of vessels – arteries, veins, and capillaries.  Arteries, veins, and capillaries are not anatomically the same.  They are not just tubes through which blood flows.  Both arteries and veins have layers of smooth muscle surrounding them.  Arteries have a much thicker layer, and many more elastic fibers as well.  The largest artery, the aorta leaving the heart, also has cardiac muscle fibers in its walls for the first few inches of its length immediately leaving the heart.  Arteries have to expand to accept the blood being forced into them from the heart, and then squeeze this blood into the veins when the heart relaxes.  Arteries have the property of elasticity, meaning that they can expand to accept a volume of blood, then contract and squeeze back to their original size after the pressure is released.  A good way to think of them is like a balloon.  When you blow into the balloon, it inflates to hold the air.  When you release the opening, the balloon squeezes the air back out.  It is the elasticity of the arteries that maintains the pressure on the blood when the heart relaxes, and keeps it flowing forward.  If the arteries did not have this property, your blood pressure would be more like 120/0, instead of 120/80 that is more normal.  Arteries branch into arterioles as they get smaller.  Arterioles eventually become capillaries, which are very thin and branching.


Vascular Resistance

Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) is the sum of the resistance of all peripheral vasculature in the systemic circulation.  This should not be confused with Pulmonary Vascular Resistance, which is the resistance in the pulmonary circulation.  Vascular resistance is a term used to define the resistance to flow that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system.  The resistance offered by the peripheral circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR), while the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR).  The systemic vascular resistance may also be referred to as the total peripheral resistance.  Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR.


Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). Collagen, in the form of elongated fibrils, is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin. It is also abundant in corneas, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs and the dentin in teeth. In muscle tissue, it serves as a major component of the endomysium. Collagen constitutes one to two percent of muscle tissue, and accounts for 6% of the weight of strong, tendinous muscles. The fibroblast is the most common cell that creates collagen.


Collagen occurs in many places throughout the body. Over 90% of the collagen in the human body, however, is type I.

The five most common types are:

  • Type I: skin, tendon, vascular ligature, organs, bone (main component of the organic part of bone)
  • Type II: cartilage (main collagenous component of cartilage)
  • Type III: reticulate (main component of reticular fibers), commonly found alongside type I
  • Type IV: forms basal lamina, the epithelium-secreted layer of the basement membrane
  • Type V: cell surfaces, hair and placenta

Synthesis of collagen requires vitamin C as a cofactor. A long-term deficiency in this vitamin results in impaired collagen synthesis and scurvy. Hydroxylation reactions are catalyzed by two different enzymes: prolyl-4-hydroxylase and lysyl-hydroxylase. Vitamin C also serves with them in inducing these reactions. In this service, one molecule of vitamin C is destroyed for each H replaced by OH. The synthesis of collagen occurs inside and outside of the cell. The formation of collagen which results in fibrillary collagen (most common form) is discussed here. Meshwork collagen, which is often involved in the formation of filtration systems, is the other form of collagen. All types of collagens are triple helices, and the differences lie in the make-up of the alpha peptides created in step 2.

The scan looks at collagen in the following areas:

  • Bones
  • Cartilage
  • Eyes
  • Hair and Skin
  • Ligaments
  • Muscles
  • Nervous system
  • Organs
  • Teeth
  • Tendons
  • Vessels